THE LEAVED CROSS AND CRESCENT BENEATH THE CROSS ON BYZANTINE ANONYMOUS FOLLES: AN INTERPRETATION OF GROUPS H, I, AND J, M

NERGİS ATAÇ

Öz


This paper analyzes the leaved cross and crescent beneath the cross on Byzantine anonymous folles, Groups H, I and J, M from the 11th century. Before the years of approximately 1071-1092, the leaved cross and crescent beneath the cross appeared on Byzantine coins only in miniature size and typically as part of a scene focusing on the emperor. The motifs were generally widespread in the artwork of the provinces rather than the capital, Constantinople. Their appearance in the 11th century in imperial Byzantine artwork points to influences of diverse cultures and reflects the political and economic climate in the region. Did the increasing prominence of the leaved cross and the crescent beneath the cross in the 11th century signal some type of agreements between the Byzantines and other new states to mint and circulate anonymous folles? While I support past theories that these folles were minted in Constantinople, some coins may have been minted in provinces and signified agreements between the empire and the new conquerors. This paper highlights the development of the leaved cross and crescent beneath the cross in Byzantine imperial art and draws attention to the non-Byzantines (e. g. Armenian, Georgian, Turk) in Anatolia in relation to the Byzantine anonymous folles (Group H, I and J, M) in 11th century Anatolia. Furthermore, I question whether the Byzantines might have implemented an integration policy as the Byzantine historian Michael Attaleiates has put forward.


Tam Metin:

PDF (English)

Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.